Armor & Mobility

FEB 2017

Military magazines in the United States and Canada, covering Armor and Mobility, focuses on tactical vehicles, C4ISR, Special Operations Forces, latest soldier equipment, shelters, and key DoD programs

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Page 21 of 27

The JSB study further identified that Europe, Asia and Africa represent the emerging theaters for HW. Disruptive Adaption is a key game changing HW threat element best represented by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). IEDs resulted in A2/AD (Anti Access/Area Denial) and drove many multi-service aerial resupply missions across Afghanistan and Iraq. From the Sky The U.S. Army NSRDEC is teamed with industry, academia, and all Department of Defense services and organizations with interest, programs and investments in Aerial Delivery (Airdrop). Airdrop systems span a wide range of release altitudes (100ft Above Ground Level through 35,000+ft Mean Sea Level), weights (small 1-2 lb sensors up to 42,000+lb heavy vehicles), and can be deployed from a wide range of aircraft types (C-130s, C-17s, and many other manned & unmanned fixed wing & VTOL type aircraft). Airdrop systems range across various levels of sophistication/accuracy and planned ground impact velocities. Systems include the most inexpensive ballistic types that are pre-packed and one time use, to self-guided (currently GPS based but soon to use video navigation) very accurate gliding systems (known as the Joint Precision Aerial Delivery System) that are reusable and can land within FOB walls when dropped from 5 miles up and 30+ miles away). Airdrops accelerated in use from 2006+ in Afghanistan and allowed for significant convoy reductions, providing alternative and safer methods to resupply FOBs. Many lives and injuries were avoided by utilizing airdrop. Airdrops were also demonstrated to be cost effective in many scenarios and often the quickest method for emergency resupply to include delivery of ammunition and supplies to troops in contact saving many lives. During the surge of 2011, 42 FOBs and 29,000 ISAF warfighters were resupplied food/water/fuel via airdrop exclusively for 6 months. Airdrop has enormous potential to be matured and more readily available for future conflicts in the short term to include establishing early SA (airdrop of sensors etc), infiltration, resupply etc. Airdrop capabilities will become more accurate, lower cost and will continue to be a very viable, cost effective, and proven option to support and protect warfighters in many scenarios. Preparing for Any Contingency The HW work was presented at the Spring Joint Committee on Tactical Shelters (JOCOTAS) meeting and augmented by key current and historical documents on the topic. Work to date has also been coordinated with the J4 and the Contingency Basing Executive Council (CBEC), OSD Tactical Edge Virtual Energy Community Of Practice (COP) and the NSRDEC Soldier & Squad Performance and Optimization Initiative Program Office. The combination provided a front end analysis that supported the hypothesis that HW would impact future expeditionary basing efforts. In the 2005, National Defense Strategy (NDS) four pillars of HW were identified and clear definitions provided. Clarity of meaning is critical to fully understand communications in this area. The CBEC is currently working through eleven years of expeditionary basing strategy, doctrine and policy only to find terms and concepts broadly in use have multiple definitions. A Joint Strategic Working Group led by G4 began addressing this issue in 2015. The HW studies included a series of common themes and recognition of multiple emerging threats. Key characteristics are listed under the Hybrid Warfare Threat Chart. • Uncertainty and Confusion…. Proverbial Fog of War • Unanticipated Game Changes • State and Non State Players Acting in Synchrony • Blurring between, War and Peace and; Combatants and Non Combatants • Exploitation of Societal Seams in Open Societies In total the JSB study identified ten threat categories, the first four in column one were from the 2005 NDS discussed above. Included are disruptive challenges that emanate from adversaries who develop and use breakthrough measures to negate current U.S. advantages in key operational domains. The IED is a prime example. It was totally unexpected, cost an estimated $150.00 to produce and consisted of an artillery shell, remote control unit and detonator. The IED made the HMMWV obsolete overnight. It was one of the biggest killers on the battlefield causing over 3000 deaths and an estimated 30,000 plus injuries to U.S. and coalition Warfighters. It drove a multimillion dollar mitigation effort and resulted in a $50B replacement vehicle program. The strategic combination of state and non-state players is a key feature of modern HW. The annexation of Crimea is an example of Russian speaking Ukrainian citizens teaming with Russian State Military forces to seize the peninsular and Black Sea Naval facilities at the port of Sevastopol. The Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) identified that HW was a threat in the 2015 Force Provider Capabilities Production Document. Force Provider is the Army's premier base camp system expandable in 150 Soldier building blocks. It is utilized as a Force Projection platform and a key enabler for humanitarian operations, most Conflict Areas Map Basing Joint Standardization Board Threat Matrix Multifaceted Threats Include Traditional Formations Media Manipulation Irregular Tactics/Formations Disinformation Terrorist Attacks Cyber Warfare Disruptive Adaptation Criminal Activity Weapons of Mass Destruction Other Unknowns Hybrid Warfare Threat Chart 20 | Armor & Mobility | February 2017

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